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John Amato | profile | all galleries >> ** Kam Local Agriculture and Pisciculture ** a UNESCO/UNDESA funded project. China tree view | thumbnails | slideshow

Canyon De Chelly and surrounding cultural landscape in northern Arizona. | Dillingham, Alaska | Alaska traveled in the Summer. | ShangHai 2013 | Alaska Thaw to Spring. | Alaska Frozen | China, another perspective. A look at everyday life. In every face & place there is a story. | the Desert - Tucson, Arizona | Pohnpei, Micronesia -FSM- 2010, 2011 | ** just a little light ** | ** the poor the needy the begging the cons and the giving of alms ** | ** Kam Agroforestry in a 300 Year Old Village ** a UNESCO/UNDESA funded project. China | ** Kam Local Agriculture and Pisciculture ** a UNESCO/UNDESA funded project. China | leica b and w | faces with a leica | love the child | Toys Children Make, Children's Innovations | ** NEPAL ** ** What I Saw ** | United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) World Environment Day June 2006 | * * TIBET * * A People and Their Culture * * August 2006 | Leica M9 | Two Days of Protests in San Francisco, California. Olympic Torch April 8-9, 2008 | Tibet Day 2009 | *** personal favorites *** | Images That Hold Special Meaning or Interest to Me | Galleries of Cities and Villages that I have visited in China. | Market Day | The Many Faces of Humankind | hands | Black and White images | FLOWERS and other plants | Animals I have had the pleasure to enjoy the company of and some I wish could have had a better life. | 6 and 8 legged animals ++ Click on thumbnails to enlarge image++ | Reptiles and Amphibians I have had the pleasure to meet. | Environmental Impacts | ** Love That Bird ** | ** the cat and the child ** | ** just a little black and white ** | Various images of electronics | The Beach | Animals used for medicine. | In Box | Nascar: infineon Raceway - June, 2010 | Pohnpaid * Pohnpei * Petroglyphs- October 2010 | What i saw | Weekend retreat. | Ohmine Public Elementary School | A visit to the HiFiman and the assembly line for daps and headphone amplifier.

** Kam Local Agriculture and Pisciculture ** a UNESCO/UNDESA funded project. China

Gaoxiu Village, Sanjiang County, Guangxi Province and Yanglan Village of Tongdao Kam Autonomous County in Hunan Province, China

An ethnographic, visual anthropological and natural history study.

The raising of fish around and in rice paddies is practiced in numerous parts of the world. This study looks at the methods that are employed by the Kam people of Gaoxiu Village in growing rice and maintaining different varieties of fish in the paddies and fishponds. Kam people also have a tradition of agroforestry and intercropping by clearing parts of the forest to allow for the growing of seasonal crops and tea trees that are used for tea tree oil. While one Kam community may invest more heavily in agroforestry and another more effort is put towards the agriculture and pisciculture both are traditional practices that are weighed more to one venture or the other often due to the terrain and or type of land available.

While the focus of this study was the integration of fish and rice paddies a community is many things. Kam ethnomedicine, drum towers, family and community relationships and all facets of daily life are examined. Nothing stands solely on its own and it is the integration and balance of all these systems that make up a workable and lasting community.

Gaoxiu was an important location because it occupies a narrow part of the valley and in the historical past it was a garrison that provided protection for the villages lying to the north from invading armies. There are ancient remains of a double wall that surrounded Gaoxiu as seen in images 3897 and 3915.

The Kam word can be partially defined from their definition as a people who take cover or to hide away. The Kam, as many of the minority people of China, were often pursued by the Han. They also fought with other minority people in the past. The Hmong were an enemy at one time but became an ally as time went on. They also warred with the Tujia and to this day often have poor relations with this minority group. In the pursuit of defensible land the Kam people also became less known owing to the remote areas they chose. It is with this in mind that many of their customs and practices are less known than that of other minorities within China.

Understanding the constraints that the span of time allotted for this study imposes as much as possible of the use of rice paddies, fish farming, local industry, daily life and interactions were visually recorded and documented.
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Much of the information contained here is primary data and was collected while during this fieldwork.

The Kam minority people are called Dong by the Han majority but as expressed by the Kam people, this is an insult as Dong is not their accepted name but one used by the Han majority. The Kam people as well as other minorities in China have had many things forced upon them, which creates a daily struggle for cultural and self identity.

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Made possible by grants from:
UNESCO-LINKS
UNDESA, through the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, New York

and contributions from:
Irene and Edwin Schaeffer
Randi and Fred Hirschmann, Hirschmann Photography
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Information and elaboration is added every day. All images will have accompanying explanations.
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This gallery is currently being worked on November 18, 2006 -
There will be considerable reorganization and editing of image explanations.
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Principle investigator: Dr. Amy Eisenberg
Botanist and investigator: Dengtao

All images and text by John Amato

Cameras used: Canon 5D, 30D and 350D. Lenses used: Canon 180mm macro, 135L, 60mm macro, 17-35L and 70-200L. A dual remote flash system was used for macro photography with a Gitzo carbon fiber tripod and ball head.
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Copyright. Use of any image is strictly forbidden without my explicit written permission.
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Most images have further information when you click on the thumbnail. ***Explanation*** indicates a greater detail of information than normal.
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0674 Sunrise on the women's drum tower and the western section of the village. ***Explanation***
0674 Sunrise on the women's drum tower and the western section of the village. ***Explanation***
2204 Early morning on main road in the village. ***Explanation***
2204 Early morning on main road in the village. ***Explanation***
2225 Dog's eye view.
2225 Dog's eye view.
2569 Children at the door of the new drum tower.
2569 Children at the door of the new drum tower.
3062 Taking little brother home.
3062 Taking little brother home.
2528 The only road to the community ends .25km from here.
2528 The only road to the community ends .25km from here.
0538 Intergenerational learning in the new drum tower.
0538 Intergenerational learning in the new drum tower.
3586 Older drum tower in the central area of Gaoxiu. As seen in image #2225.
3586 Older drum tower in the central area of Gaoxiu. As seen in image #2225.
0129 Kam child.
0129 Kam child.
2341 Offering to the ancestors at the time of the new rice festival.
2341 Offering to the ancestors at the time of the new rice festival.
2487 Cunninghamia branches to be used as firewood.
2487 Cunninghamia branches to be used as firewood.
0667 Butchering a pig.
0667 Butchering a pig.
0463 Looking at northern section of village across rice paddies.
0463 Looking at northern section of village across rice paddies.
3105 Morning fire.
3105 Morning fire.
2720 Northern section of Gao Xiu Village.
2720 Northern section of Gao Xiu Village.
5228 Grandmother and grandson.
5228 Grandmother and grandson.
1484 Drum tower.
1484 Drum tower.
2492 Central drum tower.
2492 Central drum tower.
0364 Sewing clothes and teaching the young.
0364 Sewing clothes and teaching the young.
2622 Brother and sister.
2622 Brother and sister.
2945 Looking north in the morning with the new drum tower in the distance.
2945 Looking north in the morning with the new drum tower in the distance.
3925 View of women's drum tower looking to the west from the nearby mountain.
3925 View of women's drum tower looking to the west from the nearby mountain.
4100 Plant used protection of a home.
4100 Plant used protection of a home.
0198 Looking down on fish ponds and rice paddies.
0198 Looking down on fish ponds and rice paddies.
0435 There is always work but there is always time for cards.
0435 There is always work but there is always time for cards.
0205 Ascending to the south of Goaxiu Village.
0205 Ascending to the south of Goaxiu Village.
4138 Forage for animals.
4138 Forage for animals.
0318 Rice paddies south east of the village.
0318 Rice paddies south east of the village.
3897 Garrrison wall. ***Explanation***
3897 Garrrison wall. ***Explanation***
3915 Double wall that surrounded the village.
3915 Double wall that surrounded the village.
4125 Forage for animals.
4125 Forage for animals.
0635 Out for a stroll.
0635 Out for a stroll.
IMG_3446-Every evening people are reminded by this sound to prevent a fire.
IMG_3446-Every evening people are reminded by this sound to prevent a fire.
2950 Looking north from hilltop south of the village.
2950 Looking north from hilltop south of the village.
0389 Southeast section of the village looking towards the southeast.
0389 Southeast section of the village looking towards the southeast.
1217 Typical brick chimney and fired clay tile roof.
1217 Typical brick chimney and fired clay tile roof.
4422 Traditional construction methods.
4422 Traditional construction methods.
2898 A type of adobe is used for the first floor of this dwelling.
2898 A type of adobe is used for the first floor of this dwelling.
2573 Cunninghamia bark being taken for drying.
2573 Cunninghamia bark being taken for drying.
2575 A vine is often used to bundle and secure the bark.
2575 A vine is often used to bundle and secure the bark.
3644 Carrying Cunninghamia  bark to be dried.
3644 Carrying Cunninghamia bark to be dried.
0262 Drying of Cunninghamia bark. ***Explanation***
0262 Drying of Cunninghamia bark. ***Explanation***
5207 Terracing rice paddies and Cunninghamia.
5207 Terracing rice paddies and Cunninghamia.
0284 Automatic sharpener used for the saw in a small local lumber mill.
0284 Automatic sharpener used for the saw in a small local lumber mill.
0286 Waiting while the saw blade is being sharpened.
0286 Waiting while the saw blade is being sharpened.
1199 Ancient sacred yew tree. Taxus wellichiana
1199 Ancient sacred yew tree. Taxus wellichiana
3510 Ancient sacred yew tree. Taxus wellichiana
3510 Ancient sacred yew tree. Taxus wellichiana
3511 Hoops of bamboo and paper used at the sacred yew tree.
3511 Hoops of bamboo and paper used at the sacred yew tree.
2512 Feed for animals.
2512 Feed for animals.
2925 Corn is often hung from a home for luck.
2925 Corn is often hung from a home for luck.
3467 Examing a plant in the field with a local Kam plant expert Yang Chang Jun.
3467 Examing a plant in the field with a local Kam plant expert Yang Chang Jun.
3475 Field botany with  Yang Chang Jun. Large monocot used for healing of broken bones.
3475 Field botany with Yang Chang Jun. Large monocot used for healing of broken bones.
0329 Examing plant specimens.
0329 Examing plant specimens.
3469 Ethnobotanical field collecting with plant expert Yang Chang Jun. Tagging and scale for later identification.
3469 Ethnobotanical field collecting with plant expert Yang Chang Jun. Tagging and scale for later identification.
3514 Taro and palm.
3514 Taro and palm.
2710 Palm rain cape and bamboo hat hanging on side of home.
2710 Palm rain cape and bamboo hat hanging on side of home.
4135 Baengx tinder for starting fire and used when lighting tobacco in a pipe. ***Explanation***
4135 Baengx tinder for starting fire and used when lighting tobacco in a pipe. ***Explanation***
1080 Socializing while smoking pipes in a very old drum tower.
1080 Socializing while smoking pipes in a very old drum tower.
0196 Growing tobacco for local use.
0196 Growing tobacco for local use.
2792 Fired clay pipe bowl.
2792 Fired clay pipe bowl.
2990 Traditional pipe and tobacco case.  ***Explanation***
2990 Traditional pipe and tobacco case. ***Explanation***
2787 Kam elder with traditional pipe.
2787 Kam elder with traditional pipe.
3681 Kam elder smoking a traditional bamboo pipe with ceramic bowl.
3681 Kam elder smoking a traditional bamboo pipe with ceramic bowl.
5210 Using the stem of a fern.
5210 Using the stem of a fern.
3702 Kam elder man with traditional long pipe with horn tobacco container.  ***Explantion***
3702 Kam elder man with traditional long pipe with horn tobacco container. ***Explantion***
0195 Tea tree fruit. Tea seed oil is made from the seed of this fruit.
0195 Tea tree fruit. Tea seed oil is made from the seed of this fruit.
5421 Storing tea seed oil. ***Explanation***
5421 Storing tea seed oil. ***Explanation***
0379 Old drum tower with fire pit.
0379 Old drum tower with fire pit.
1061 Child sleeping in a drum tower.
1061 Child sleeping in a drum tower.
0383 Old drum tower in south east section of village.
0383 Old drum tower in south east section of village.
0409 Beam construction in the new drum tower.  ***Explanation***
0409 Beam construction in the new drum tower. ***Explanation***
3531 Planing the last few planks used in the construction of the new drum tower.
3531 Planing the last few planks used in the construction of the new drum tower.
0576 Women practice singing and dancing.
0576 Women practice singing and dancing.
0410 Decoration and open beam construction.
0410 Decoration and open beam construction.
4186 Relaxing in the new drum tower before the celebrations.
4186 Relaxing in the new drum tower before the celebrations.
0526 Hammering in the last tenon to hang the door in the new drum tower.  ***Explanatiion***
0526 Hammering in the last tenon to hang the door in the new drum tower. ***Explanatiion***
0547 Playing the lushen for the completion of the new drum tower.  ***Explanation***
0547 Playing the lushen for the completion of the new drum tower. ***Explanation***
2557 Looking up in new drum tower.
2557 Looking up in new drum tower.
2824 Playing the lusheng in the new drum tower.
2824 Playing the lusheng in the new drum tower.
0300 Looking up and west at the inside beams of the new drum tower.
0300 Looking up and west at the inside beams of the new drum tower.
4201 Young Kam girl in the new drum tower.
4201 Young Kam girl in the new drum tower.
2832 Group of lusheng players inside of new drum tower.
2832 Group of lusheng players inside of new drum tower.
2825 Playiing the lusheng in the new drum tower.
2825 Playiing the lusheng in the new drum tower.
2838 Lusheng players for dedication of new drum tower.
2838 Lusheng players for dedication of new drum tower.
0558 Playing of the lusheng for the celebration of the new drum tower.
0558 Playing of the lusheng for the celebration of the new drum tower.
0415 Open beams and decoration.
0415 Open beams and decoration.
4174 Playing a traditional instrument and entertaining the some of the village youth.
4174 Playing a traditional instrument and entertaining the some of the village youth.
0411 Resting, relaxing and contemplating the upcoming celebration.
0411 Resting, relaxing and contemplating the upcoming celebration.
5238 Looking up at pegs in the new drum tower.  ***Explanation***
5238 Looking up at pegs in the new drum tower. ***Explanation***
3026 Hauling a pig for butchering by the water.
3026 Hauling a pig for butchering by the water.
3042 Washing a slaughtered pig by the village stream.
3042 Washing a slaughtered pig by the village stream.
3038 Scraping the hair from a pig in during the butchering process.
3038 Scraping the hair from a pig in during the butchering process.
2513 Off hours for the second butcher.
2513 Off hours for the second butcher.
3072 Butchering pig and preparing intestines.  ***Explanation***
3072 Butchering pig and preparing intestines. ***Explanation***
3029 Outdoor butcher shop.
3029 Outdoor butcher shop.
0621 The new drum tower as the sun was going down. ***Explanation of the Drum Tower***
0621 The new drum tower as the sun was going down. ***Explanation of the Drum Tower***
2359 Playing the lusheng.
2359 Playing the lusheng.
2577 A veiw of the new drum tower.
2577 A veiw of the new drum tower.
3170 Adjusting and securing traditional silver Kam headdress.
3170 Adjusting and securing traditional silver Kam headdress.
3174 The final adjustments are made to the Kam headdress. ***Explanation***
3174 The final adjustments are made to the Kam headdress. ***Explanation***
3182 Young Kam woman's headdress being placed for drum tower dedication.
3182 Young Kam woman's headdress being placed for drum tower dedication.
3187 The silver headdress, neckshield and silver jewelry correctly placed and ready.
3187 The silver headdress, neckshield and silver jewelry correctly placed and ready.
3193 Traditional Kam clothes and silver jewelry.
3193 Traditional Kam clothes and silver jewelry.
3197 Traditional ceremonial dress.
3197 Traditional ceremonial dress.
3186 Young Kam woman with traditional headdress for the new drum tower celebration.
3186 Young Kam woman with traditional headdress for the new drum tower celebration.
3165 Cleaning fish from the local ponds for the drum tower celebration.
3165 Cleaning fish from the local ponds for the drum tower celebration.
3254 Cooking the large carp from the local ponds in preparation for the days celebration.
3254 Cooking the large carp from the local ponds in preparation for the days celebration.
3255 Pickled fish, a Kam traditional food.  ***Explanation***
3255 Pickled fish, a Kam traditional food. ***Explanation***
4164 Taking prepared rice for new drum tower dedication. *** Information on the wind rain bridge.***
4164 Taking prepared rice for new drum tower dedication. *** Information on the wind rain bridge.***
3208 Glutinous rice brought for the dedication of the new drum tower. ***Explanation***
3208 Glutinous rice brought for the dedication of the new drum tower. ***Explanation***
3225 Procession to the new drum tower for its dedication.
3225 Procession to the new drum tower for its dedication.
3200 Contributions of money and rice for the new drum tower.
3200 Contributions of money and rice for the new drum tower.
3230 As people arrive for the dedication, fireworks are lit in mass.
3230 As people arrive for the dedication, fireworks are lit in mass.
0531 After the firecrackers.
0531 After the firecrackers.
0842 Inauguration day of the new drum tower.
0842 Inauguration day of the new drum tower.
0820 Celebration day and Dr. Eisenberg.
0820 Celebration day and Dr. Eisenberg.
3420 Fireworks display at new drum tower dedication. ***Explanation***
3420 Fireworks display at new drum tower dedication. ***Explanation***
3922 Looking to the west with the new drum tower in the distance.
3922 Looking to the west with the new drum tower in the distance.
0188 Diving masks made of used truck inner tubes.
0188 Diving masks made of used truck inner tubes.
0255 A fish pond surrounded by rice paddies.
0255 A fish pond surrounded by rice paddies.
0270 Pesticides for sale at a local store.
0270 Pesticides for sale at a local store.
3482 Order: Orthoptera
3482 Order: Orthoptera
2585 Pesticide bottle in the main local stream.
2585 Pesticide bottle in the main local stream.
0944 Order: Orthoptera
0944 Order: Orthoptera
5364 Unidentified caterpillar on rice leaf.
5364 Unidentified caterpillar on rice leaf.
5208 Dry chemical pesticide that is mixed with water and liquid insecticide.
5208 Dry chemical pesticide that is mixed with water and liquid insecticide.
0990 Order: Arachnida
0990 Order: Arachnida
3975 Caterpillar Order: Lepidoptera.
3975 Caterpillar Order: Lepidoptera.
2227 Child by the central drum tower.
2227 Child by the central drum tower.
3121 Garbage being swept into community stream.  ***Explanation***
3121 Garbage being swept into community stream. ***Explanation***
0273 Washing clothes in the main stream of Gaoxiu.
0273 Washing clothes in the main stream of Gaoxiu.
0501 Dumping garbage into the village stream.
0501 Dumping garbage into the village stream.
0503 Floating trash.
0503 Floating trash.
3949 Pollution from detergents. ***Explanation***
3949 Pollution from detergents. ***Explanation***
2803 Washing clothes and hair in the village stream.
2803 Washing clothes and hair in the village stream.
0400 Aerating a pond.
0400 Aerating a pond.
1307 Dragging plant cuttings that will be fed to fish.
1307 Dragging plant cuttings that will be fed to fish.
3152 A water plant used to provide shade for fish, which are approximately 3 to 4cm across.
3152 A water plant used to provide shade for fish, which are approximately 3 to 4cm across.
0482 The gathering of stream plants to feed the fish in the ponds.
0482 The gathering of stream plants to feed the fish in the ponds.
0368 Fish ponds.
0368 Fish ponds.
2735 Gathering of stream plants for fish feed.
2735 Gathering of stream plants for fish feed.
2737 A renewable and plentiful fish feed.
2737 A renewable and plentiful fish feed.
3137 Feeding fish in pond using stream vegitation.
3137 Feeding fish in pond using stream vegitation.
0626 Two different types of grass fed to fish.
0626 Two different types of grass fed to fish.
3056 Little goes to waste. Cutting grass between rice fields to be fed to fish.
3056 Little goes to waste. Cutting grass between rice fields to be fed to fish.
0921 Grass eating carp.
0921 Grass eating carp.
1048 Fish pond with grass cutting on the right and corn leaves and husks on the left.
1048 Fish pond with grass cutting on the right and corn leaves and husks on the left.
1049 Corn husks and grass fish feed.
1049 Corn husks and grass fish feed.
0884 Liquid fertilizer.
0884 Liquid fertilizer.
0940 Class: Diptera
0940 Class: Diptera
0950 Order: Odonata a blue dragonfly.
0950 Order: Odonata a blue dragonfly.
1050 Cleaning the bamboo filter that keeps fish in the paddy.
1050 Cleaning the bamboo filter that keeps fish in the paddy.
0962 Order: Coleoptera
0962 Order: Coleoptera
1120 Sweeping up dried rice. ***Explanation***
1120 Sweeping up dried rice. ***Explanation***
0331 Carrying rice to be cleaned and hulled.
0331 Carrying rice to be cleaned and hulled.
0420 Cleaning the rice of loose hulls and foreign matter. ***Explanation***
0420 Cleaning the rice of loose hulls and foreign matter. ***Explanation***
1189 Bagging the rice for later use.
1189 Bagging the rice for later use.
0724 Rice to be hulled.
0724 Rice to be hulled.
0718 Rice hulling.
0718 Rice hulling.
2647 Rice after being hulled. ***Explanation***
2647 Rice after being hulled. ***Explanation***
0728 Rice bagged and ready for storage.
0728 Rice bagged and ready for storage.
2377 Pole used to carry heavy loads across the shoulder. Wood or metal buckets are often used with the hooks.
2377 Pole used to carry heavy loads across the shoulder. Wood or metal buckets are often used with the hooks.
2378 One of two hooks used when hauling heavy objects across the shoulder. As seen in 0728.
2378 One of two hooks used when hauling heavy objects across the shoulder. As seen in 0728.
3460 Spreading liquid fertilizer.
3460 Spreading liquid fertilizer.
3518 An expansive rice paddy with a fish nest in foreground.
3518 An expansive rice paddy with a fish nest in foreground.
3653 Outlet of rice paddy with fish guard in place. ***Explanation***
3653 Outlet of rice paddy with fish guard in place. ***Explanation***
3496 Yang Chang Jun treating Dr. Eisenberg for a poison ivy like reaction.
3496 Yang Chang Jun treating Dr. Eisenberg for a poison ivy like reaction.
4241 Wu Shun Jun demonstrating and discussing herbal medicine. ***Explanation***
4241 Wu Shun Jun demonstrating and discussing herbal medicine. ***Explanation***
4268 Wu Shun Jun using accupressure on Dengtao. ***Explanation***
4268 Wu Shun Jun using accupressure on Dengtao. ***Explanation***
4274 Wu Shun Jun discussing herbal plants with Dr. Eisenberg and Dengtao.
4274 Wu Shun Jun discussing herbal plants with Dr. Eisenberg and Dengtao.
3561 Order: Coleoptera
3561 Order: Coleoptera
4363 unidentified cocoon.
4363 unidentified cocoon.
3988 Order: Arachnida
3988 Order: Arachnida
5390 Order: Odonata
5390 Order: Odonata
5395 Utricularia found in pond in the northeast section of the village. ***Explanation***
5395 Utricularia found in pond in the northeast section of the village. ***Explanation***
0293 Village elder making netting.
0293 Village elder making netting.
1210 Young girl netting fish.
1210 Young girl netting fish.
2543 From start to finish everything is grown and made here for hand held fish net.
2543 From start to finish everything is grown and made here for hand held fish net.
1212 Young girl netting fish in the main village steam.
1212 Young girl netting fish in the main village steam.
2538 Hands that make the fish net. Local cotton is used.
2538 Hands that make the fish net. Local cotton is used.
1202 No stream is too small. This young boy works for hours to catch fish for his family.
1202 No stream is too small. This young boy works for hours to catch fish for his family.
2540 Years of experience making fish nets.
2540 Years of experience making fish nets.
1218 Looking east at the village and a drum tower.
1218 Looking east at the village and a drum tower.
3582 Casting a weighted net for the small steam fish.
3582 Casting a weighted net for the small steam fish.
3572 Casting a net in the main village stream.
3572 Casting a net in the main village stream.
3573 As the net descends.
3573 As the net descends.
2209 Cast net.
2209 Cast net.
3575 Checking for fish after casting net.
3575 Checking for fish after casting net.
3820 Outlet of a rice paddy with a fish guard in place.
3820 Outlet of a rice paddy with a fish guard in place.
3939 Glutinous or sticky rice has more than one purpose.
3939 Glutinous or sticky rice has more than one purpose.
0928 Praying mantis egg case.
0928 Praying mantis egg case.
0982 Order: Arachnida
0982 Order: Arachnida
3548 Order: Arachnida and Orthoptera
3548 Order: Arachnida and Orthoptera
3945 Intercropping mung beans and rice. ***Explanation***
3945 Intercropping mung beans and rice. ***Explanation***
1549 Clearcut north of Gauxiu 10 kilometers.
1549 Clearcut north of Gauxiu 10 kilometers.
1554 Clear-cut contrast with unharvested forest. A stark difference.
1554 Clear-cut contrast with unharvested forest. A stark difference.
2309 Kam farm north of Gaoxiu 5kms, contrasting rice fields and fish ponds.
2309 Kam farm north of Gaoxiu 5kms, contrasting rice fields and fish ponds.
0119 Kam female elder.
0119 Kam female elder.
0228 Family.
0228 Family.
0235 Kam elder.
0235 Kam elder.
0271 Young boy loading bricks that he will haul to a construction site.
0271 Young boy loading bricks that he will haul to a construction site.
0429 Home and store with rice drying.  ***Explanation***
0429 Home and store with rice drying. ***Explanation***
0583 Common construction for a pigpen.
0583 Common construction for a pigpen.
0457 One of the village carpenters making stools. Local industry.
0457 One of the village carpenters making stools. Local industry.
0470 Local industry.
0470 Local industry.
2506 Cement blocks. Local industry. ***Explanation***
2506 Cement blocks. Local industry. ***Explanation***
0683
0683
0684 Village center.
0684 Village center.
IMG_0879-elder-2.jpg
IMG_0879-elder-2.jpg
1027 Early morning and friends meet.
1027 Early morning and friends meet.
1107 Women elders enjoying each other's company.
1107 Women elders enjoying each other's company.
1224 Young Kam girl in traditional clothes.
1224 Young Kam girl in traditional clothes.
1283 Kam girls and elder in traditonal clothes.
1283 Kam girls and elder in traditonal clothes.
1293 Kam girls.
1293 Kam girls.
2193 The warp. ***Explanation***
2193 The warp. ***Explanation***
2191 Using a warp. Please read 2193
2191 Using a warp. Please read 2193
2196 Using the warp. Please read 2193
2196 Using the warp. Please read 2193
2200 Using a warp. Please read 2193
2200 Using a warp. Please read 2193
2216 Sewing and watching her grandchild.
2216 Sewing and watching her grandchild.
2350 Tall glutinous rice stock. Glutinous rice is the most prized among the Kam people.
2350 Tall glutinous rice stock. Glutinous rice is the most prized among the Kam people.
2383 Saw.
2383 Saw.
2393 Baskets used for chicken at night.
2393 Baskets used for chicken at night.
2424 Waterwheel north by 5 km in Hunan Province.
2424 Waterwheel north by 5 km in Hunan Province.
2509 Sunrise across the roofs of the village.
2509 Sunrise across the roofs of the village.
2619 Holding a laugh.
2619 Holding a laugh.
2625 Washing, bathing and playing in the village stream.
2625 Washing, bathing and playing in the village stream.
2651 Typical carrying method of this multiple use cutting tool.
2651 Typical carrying method of this multiple use cutting tool.
2712 The drying of corn.
2712 The drying of corn.
2741 Cutting the days firewood needs.
2741 Cutting the days firewood needs.
2777 No glasses needed.  Intricate sewing.
2777 No glasses needed. Intricate sewing.
2883 Rice water hair conditioner.
2883 Rice water hair conditioner.
2943 Village graveyard in the northeast section of the village.
2943 Village graveyard in the northeast section of the village.
2965 Vat used for making rice wine.
2965 Vat used for making rice wine.
3077 Kam child near outdoor butcher.
3077 Kam child near outdoor butcher.
3535 Hauling firewood of Cunninghamia limbs through the wind rain bridge near new drum tower.
3535 Hauling firewood of Cunninghamia limbs through the wind rain bridge near new drum tower.
3541 Sleeping child on wind rain bridge at north section of village close to the new drum tower.
3541 Sleeping child on wind rain bridge at north section of village close to the new drum tower.
3658 Kam grandmother and grandchildren in front of their home.
3658 Kam grandmother and grandchildren in front of their home.
3689 Two Kam elder woman visiting.
3689 Two Kam elder woman visiting.
3719 Female Kam elder.
3719 Female Kam elder.
3733 Female Kam elder.
3733 Female Kam elder.
4016 This Kam girl always seemed to be happy and smiling.
4016 This Kam girl always seemed to be happy and smiling.
4041 Kam woman talking from a second story window.
4041 Kam woman talking from a second story window.
4161 .5 kilometers north of main village.
4161 .5 kilometers north of main village.
4191 In the new drum tower Kam farmers receiving payment of refunded farm tax from local official.
4191 In the new drum tower Kam farmers receiving payment of refunded farm tax from local official.
4336 Boys playing checkers.
4336 Boys playing checkers.
4417 Kam elder relaxing and smoking his pipe.
4417 Kam elder relaxing and smoking his pipe.
4429 Two Kam men and boy relaxing in central section of village.
4429 Two Kam men and boy relaxing in central section of village.
4439 Bringing in limbs for firewood in main section of village.
4439 Bringing in limbs for firewood in main section of village.
0650 Cat by the door.
0650 Cat by the door.
0589 Kam elder.
0589 Kam elder.
0629 People enjoy each other's company.  ***Explanation***
0629 People enjoy each other's company. ***Explanation***
0354 Mother and child with a neurological abnormality.
0354 Mother and child with a neurological abnormality.
0505 Intergenerational teaching.
0505 Intergenerational teaching.
0372 Emptying one of the many local small spring's reservoir.
0372 Emptying one of the many local small spring's reservoir.
0115 Dried beans and locally used hats.
0115 Dried beans and locally used hats.
2417 Soybean mill for making soy milk.
2417 Soybean mill for making soy milk.
2280 Eggplant often cooked with green beans is very popular.
2280 Eggplant often cooked with green beans is very popular.
2278 Peppers and tomatoes. The tomatoes are often cooked with eggs and the peppers are used with many foods.
2278 Peppers and tomatoes. The tomatoes are often cooked with eggs and the peppers are used with many foods.
2271 Fresh bamboo shoots trimmed  that will be sliced and cooked.
2271 Fresh bamboo shoots trimmed that will be sliced and cooked.
0653 Local butcher and a place to socialize.
0653 Local butcher and a place to socialize.
2323 Wind rain bridge counterbalance construction.  ***Explanation***
2323 Wind rain bridge counterbalance construction. ***Explanation***
2353 Bottom of a  winnowing basket used for rice and general use.
2353 Bottom of a winnowing basket used for rice and general use.
Musella lasiocarpa
Musella lasiocarpa
Musella lasiocarpa
Musella lasiocarpa
Sewing. Remote village, China. 2006
Sewing. Remote village, China. 2006
Kam elder  .IMG_3281elderindt.jpg
Kam elder .IMG_3281elderindt.jpg