photo sharing and upload picture albums photo forums search pictures popular photos photography help login
Tomasz Dziubinski - Photography | profile | all galleries >> COLOR AND COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY >> Lublin Old Town by Night tree view | thumbnails | slideshow | map

Warsaw, Poland | Roztocze Landscape Photography | Flowers' Impressions | Roztocze Architectural Photography | Barcelona Spain | UNESCO - World Heritage Sites | MACRO PHOTOGRAPHY | Portraiture | Beauty on the Black | Vivid Sunsets | Croatia | Bavaria, Germany | Varia | Slovakia | Beskidy, Poland | Masurian Lakeland | Animal World | Windows | Podlasie, Poland | Mazowsze (Mazovia), Poland | In High Season | Still Life | Painting | Water World | Bory Tucholskie | Bowling Fun at Arco | Kilimanjaro at Time Cafe | Salsa Fun at Osada | Lublin Old Town by Night | Kazimierz Dolny & Middle Vistula Gorge | THE CURSE OF KATYN | Incidental | The Touch of Autumn | RECENT ADDITIONS II | RECENT ADDITIONS I | BIEBRZA NATIONAL PARK

Lublin Old Town by Night

One winter evening at Lublin Old Town, tracing unique light and mood in cold, fog and rain ...

 Lublin is the largest city in Poland east of the Vistula, and the capital of Lublin Voivodeship. It is Poland's ninth largest city.
The first permanent settlements on the Lublin site were established in the early Middle Ages, though archeological finds indicate a long, earlier presence of various cultures in the general area. The earliest, most significant settlement began in the 6th century, on a hill located in the suburb of Czwartek (in Polish Thursday, most likely in reference to the market day of the settlement). It is likely that the surrounding hills, notably the site of the present day Old Town, were also settled at around this time. In the 10th and 11th centuries the Czwartek settlement developed into an important trade centre. The location of Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it a military significance. The first fortification on the site may have been built as early as the 8th century, possibly on the Castle Hill. Certainly at the end of the 10th century a significant fortification existed there. As the castle grew, the Old Town hill adjacent to it became the main focus of settlement, and the Czwartek settlement declined in relative importance. The castle became the seat of a Castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224, but quite possibly present from the start of the 12th, or even 10th century. The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier. The city was a target of attacks by Tatars, Ruthenes, Yotvingians and Lithuanians and was destroyed a number of times. It received a city charter in 1317. Casimir the Great, appreciating the strategic importance of the site, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls.

In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from king Wladyslaw Jagiello, and with the coming of the peace between Poland and Lithuania developed into a great trade centre carrying a large portion of commerce between the two countries. In 1474 the area around Lublin was combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship. In the 15th century and 16th century the town grew rapidly. The largest trade fairs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Lublin. During the 16th century the noble parliaments (sejm) were held in Lublin a number of times. On June 26, 1569, one of the most important ones proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united Poland and Lithuania. Since the second half of the 16th century, Reformation movements developed in Lublin, and a large congregation of Polish Brethren was present in the city. One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was also established in Lublin around this time. It continued to be a vital part of the city's life until the community ceased to exist during the Nazi Holocaust. Between 1580 and 1764 the Jewish Council of Four Lands Arba Aracot (Sejm of 4 countries) was held in Lublin. 70 delegates of Jewish local kahals met to discuss issue of taxations and other important for Jewish communities issues.

In the 17th century, the town suffered a decline due to the Swedish invasion during the Northern Wars. After the Third of the Partitions of Poland in 1795 Lublin was located in the Austrian empire, then since 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw, and then since 1815 in the Congress Poland under Russian rule. At the beginning of the 19th century a number of modern urban developments took place, with new squares, streets, and public buildings coming into existence. In 1877 a railway connection to Warsaw and Kovel was built, which spurred industrial development in the city. Lublin's population grew from 28,900 in 1873 to 50,150 in 1897.

The Russian rule ended in 1915, when the city was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian armies. After the defeat of the Central Powers in 1918, the first government of independent Poland operated in Lublin for a short time. In the inter war years, the city continued to develop, its population grew, and important industrial enterprises were established, including the first aviation factory in Poland, the Plage i La¶kiewicz works, later nationalized as the LWS factory. The Catholic University of Lublin was founded in 1918. The city contained a vibrant Jewish community which formed around 40% of Lublin's population.

After the 1939 German invasion of Poland the city found itself in the General Government. During the German occupation the city's population was a target of severe oppression by the occupiers, with a particularly grim fate reserved for the Jewish inhabitants. Nazi plans were aimed towards turning Lublin into Germanised city with its population of Ethnic Germans growing towards 20-25 %, compared with 10-15% in 1939. Near Lublin, a reservation was set up for Jews according to the Nisko Plan, also known as "Lublin Plan".  The city served as a German headquarters for Operation Reinhardt, the main German effort to exterminate the Jews in occupied Poland. Lublin's Jewish population was forced into the Lublin ghetto established around the area of Podzamcze. The majority of the ghetto's inhabitants, about 26,000 people, was deported to the Be³¿ec death camp between 17 March and 11 April 1942. The remainder were moved to facilities around Majdanek, a large concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city. Most of them were killed by the war's end.  The Majdanek camp, together with the prison established in the Lublin castle, also served as a major centre of terror measures aimed at the non-Jewish population of Lublin and the surrounding district.  On 24 July 1944, the city was taken by the Soviet Army and became the temporary capital of a Soviet-controlled communist Polish Committee of National Liberation established in the city, which was to serve as basis for a puppet government. The capital was moved to Warsaw in January 1945.

~ ~ ~

Lublin, by some called "little Cracow", has wonderful architecture and a charming, unique ambiance. It is really worth a visit in order to experience a "true" Polish city atmosphere.
Lublin Old Town - constitutes one of the most precious Polish complexes of historic buildings. The Crown Tribunal alongside with the 14th-century Kraków Gate leading from the Old Town to the city center are commonly considered symbols of the city. The Old Town, with its old, picturesque architecture is particularly pretty. The newly renovated Lublin Castle boasts the incredible Trinity Chapel. The Chapel has been enrolled in the UNESCO cultural heritage list. A must-see are the 15th century Russian-Byzantine frescoes – unique and, some say, the most beautiful in Poland.

In addition to being an important historical site, Lublin has wonderful bars, clubs, cafes and restaurants, serving fresh local delicacies as well as international cuisine.
Catering to a large number of students, who account for 35% of the population, the city offers a vibrant music and nightclub scene. Lublin has many theatres, philharmonic orchestras and museums.
 


Lublin Castle
Lublin Castle
The Castle Square
The Castle Square
The Castle Square
The Castle Square
Kowalska Street
Kowalska Street
The Castle Square
The Castle Square
Grodzka Street
Grodzka Street
Grodzka Street
Grodzka Street
Grodzka Street
Grodzka Street
Krakowska Gate
Krakowska Gate
Trynitarska Tower
Trynitarska Tower
Lublin Castle
Lublin Castle
Krakow Gate
Krakow Gate
Old Town Market Square
Old Town Market Square
Rybna Street
Rybna Street
Grodzka Street
Grodzka Street
Zlota Street
Zlota Street
Old Town Market Square
Old Town Market Square
Zamkowa Street
Zamkowa Street
Grodzka Street
Grodzka Street
Grodzka Street
Grodzka Street
Grodzka Street
Grodzka Street
Zamkowa Street
Zamkowa Street
The Castle Square
The Castle Square
Trynitarska Tower
Trynitarska Tower
The Castle Square
The Castle Square
The Castle Square
The Castle Square
The Holy Cross Church
The Holy Cross Church