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Cefal¨ -
26-APR-2008 marie-josÚe wolff

Cefal¨ -

Sicily view map

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia :
Of Greek foundation, the city evidently derived its name from its situation on a lofty and precipitous rock, forming a bold headland (Κεφαλὴ) projecting into the sea. But though its name proves it to have been of Greek origin, no mention is found of it in Thucydides, who expressly says that Himera was the only Greek colony on this coast of the island (vi. 62); it is probable that Cephaloedium was at this time merely a fortress (φρούριον) belonging to the Himeraeans, and may very likely have been first peopled by refugees after the destruction of Himera. Its name first appears in history at the time of the Carthaginian expedition under Himilco, 396 BC, when that general concluded a treaty with the Himeraeans and the inhabitants of Cephaloedium. (Diod. xiv. 56.) But after the defeat of the Carthaginian armament, Dionysius the Elder made himself master of Cephaloedium, which was betrayed into his hands. (Ibid. 78.) At a later period we find it again independent, but apparently on friendly terms with the Carthaginians, on which account it was attacked and taken by Agathocles, 307 BC. (Id. xx. 56.) In the First Punic War it was reduced by the Roman fleet under Atilius Calatinus and Scipio Nasica, 254 BC, but by treachery and not by force of arms. (Id. xxiii., Exc. Hoesch. p. 505.) Cicero speaks of it as apparently a flourishing town, enjoying full municipal privileges; it was, in his time, one of the civitates decumanae which paid the tithes of their corn in kind to the Roman state, and suffered severely from the oppressions and exactions of Verres. (Cic. Verr. ii. 5. 2, iii. 43.) It also minted coins. No subsequent mention of it is found in history, but it is noticed by the geographers Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, among the towns of Sicily, and at a later period its name is still found in the Itineraries. (Strab. vi. p. 266; Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Ptol. iii. 4. ž 3; Itin. Ant. p. 92; Tab. Peut.).

During the Byzantine domination the settlement was moved from the plain to the current spur, although the old town was never entirely abandoned. In 858, after a long siege, it was conquered by the Arabs, and rechristened Gafludi. For the following centuries it was part of the Emirate of Sicily.

In 1063 the Normans captured it and in 1131, Roger II, king of Sicily, transferred it from its almost inaccessible position to one at the foot of the rock, where there was a small but excellent harbor, and began construction of the present cathedral. Between the 13th century and 1451 it was under different feudal families, and then it became a possession of the Bishops of Cefal¨.

During the Risorgimento, the patriot Salvatore Spinuzza was shot here in 1857. Cefal¨ became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

Panasonic Lumix DMC-FZ30
1/160s f/9.0 at 7.4mm iso100 full exif

other sizes: small medium original
Marc Demoulin15-Sep-2008 07:17
Magnifique photo et composition! VVV
Fabienne23-Jun-2008 11:34
Une composition très réussie. c'est splendide.
zyziza21-Jun-2008 08:47
Wonderful old town. Fresh fishes on the market?
Jean-Rene A19-Jun-2008 22:20
Superbe point de vue entre mer et ciel.
Hodero19-Jun-2008 06:00
Great lesson in history.
Jaime Gonzßlez18-Jun-2008 18:33
Another beauty for our eyes! -V-
QUERIDO18-Jun-2008 13:28
very nice shot,vote
Yvonne18-Jun-2008 10:22
A wonderful view & superb shot! v
Tom Lun18-Jun-2008 09:59
Beautiful location
Jean-Luc Rollier18-Jun-2008 09:05
Lumineux! JL V
Ceya18-Jun-2008 08:45
Beautiful scene, full of history..V
Paco Lˇpez18-Jun-2008 05:51
Muy bonita y muy buena foto!! V!
JD18-Jun-2008 05:30
Tres beau village!
silvia marmori18-Jun-2008 02:36
beautiful and well registered!
Liz Bickel18-Jun-2008 02:11
Jean D18-Jun-2008 01:46
Elle est formidable, cette image et merci pour le historique, Marie Josée! ~V~
CIS18-Jun-2008 01:20
Had to bring in hubby to see this.....Breathtaking!!!
Sandi Whitteker17-Jun-2008 22:02
Fabulous shot. What a great looking town, and impressive mountain.
Xavi Barneda17-Jun-2008 21:27
Great image of this wonderful town V!
Aud Elise Sj°sŠther17-Jun-2008 20:41
A beautiful place! V
Sofia Solomennikova17-Jun-2008 20:04
Lovely coast scene, V
Marcia Colelli17-Jun-2008 20:03
Very beautiful scene V
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