Some foundations of the lower city walls, rebuilt by the Armenians in the 12th century.
The original native settlement was re-founded by the Romans in 19 BC, following a visit by Augustus, and named Caesarea ad Anazarbus. It rivaled Tarsus, the Cilician capital, in the 3rd century AD, and under Diocletian became the seat of the separate Roman province of Cilicia Secunda. Anazarbus was an archbishopric under the Byzantine Empire. After its devastation by earthquakes in the 6th century, it was rebuilt, first as Justinopolis, later as Justinianopolis.
Under Muslim occupation (795-962) it was renamed ʿAyn Zarbah’ and retained its strategic importance. It was regained for Byzantium by Nicephorus Phocas about 962 and was subsequently devastated during the Crusades (1098). After becoming an Armenian capital, the city walls were rebuilt, and the town regained some importance, until its destruction by the Mamluks in 1375.
Correspondent: J.M.Criel, Antwerpen.
Sources: ‘Guides Bleus: Turquie’ – Edition 1986 , ‘Guide Fodor: Turquie’ - Edition 1988 , Wikipedia
& Personal Visits (1985-1999).