This mosque - also called the Yavuz Selim mosque - on a terrace overlooking the Golden Horn I always visit. The mosque itself is simple, but of great design. The view over the Golden Horn spectacular. Next to it is the türbe (tomb) of Selim I with fine Iznik tiles. It was finished in 1522 under Süleyman the Magnificent (an inscription implies his predecessor, Selim himself, may have started it). It is NOT from Sinan, though it is often ascribed to him. The architect is not known.
This is the catafalque of Yavuz Selim Khan, 1470-1520, 9nth Ottoman Sultan and 47th Kalif. The fine "Strolling through Istanbul" guidebook has it "The sultan was known to his people as Yavuz Selim or Selim the Grim, and beheaded his Grand Vezirs at the rate of one a year". As for the caliphate "After his capture of Cairo in 1517, Selim took for himself the title of Caliph, and thenceforth the Ottoman Sultans assumed the titular leadershop of Islam".