The citadel is located on a spot where already in Justinian times a fortress was erected. However, the present citadel owns its existence to the Seljuks, who took the city in 1071-1098. The oldest finds on the site date to the chalcolithic period (3700-3500 BC).
At the side the entrance to the Kale or citadel is situated is a small market (on later pictures you will see views from above), and there are small industries, which I show later on. First we climb up to the citadel.