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Assyrian Colonies period

During the so-called ‘Period of the Assyrian Colonies’ (1950-1750 BC) some large cities in Anatolia had a portion that was set aside by the local rulers for the Assyrian merchants who traded Anatolian copper, silver, gold, precious stones and wool for luxury items, foodstuffs and spices, woven fabrics and tin from the Assyrian homeland and from Elam.

These settlements were called ‘kârum’, which means ‘port’ in Akkadian (the lingua franca of the time), although it was extended to refer to any trading colony whether or not it bordered water. Except for the merchants and their family, the ‘kârum’ was also inhabited by Assyrian soldiers, who had to protect the caravans. The most important of these kârums was the ‘merchant-colony city of Kaneš’ (now Kültepe, near Kayseri); several other cities in Anatolia also had a ‘kârum’, such as Hatuş (Boğazkale), the later Hittit capital. The Assyrians and their ‘kârum’ enjoyed the protection of the local lords, and paid taxes in return when exporting or importing goods.

These ‘local lords’ were kings ruling city-states. In Central-Anatolia they were generally autochthonous Hatti (or: Hattian), although a few cities fell into Hittite hands over time. Because of this particular political landscape, this period is sometimes also called ‘Period of the Anatolian City-States’, which permits to include other cultural centers of the 1950-1750 BC period, such as Troy, that had no ‘kârum’ and was not ruled by Hatti, nor by Hittites.

Correspondent: J.M.Criel, Antwerpen.
Source: Website of ‘hattuscha.de’ & Wikipedia.
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Box with relief
Box with relief
Box with relief
Box with relief
Box with relief
Box with relief
Human shaped double vessel
Human shaped double vessel
Female deity in ivory
Female deity in ivory
Ankara 10062012_0721.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0721.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7006.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7006.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1432.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1432.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9201.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9201.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7083.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7083.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7084.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7084.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7085.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7085.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7010.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7010.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7011.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7011.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0712.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0712.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0714.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0714.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9194.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9194.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7079.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7079.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9184.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9184.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7080.jpg
Ankara june 2011 7080.jpg
Spouted vessel on tripod
Spouted vessel on tripod
Animal shaped vessel
Animal shaped vessel
Lead figurines gods
Lead figurines gods
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1418.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1418.jpg
Court record
Court record
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1414.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1414.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1416.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1416.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1419.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1419.jpg
Hittite bird head
Hittite bird head
Bull's head
Bull's head
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1435.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1435.jpg
Animal shaped vessel
Animal shaped vessel
Animal shaped vessel
Animal shaped vessel
Rhyton
Rhyton
Rhyton
Rhyton
Twin ceremonial vessel
Twin ceremonial vessel
ceremonial vessel
ceremonial vessel
ceremonial vessel
ceremonial vessel
Ankara september 2011 9186.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9186.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9188.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9188.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0709.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0709.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0710.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0710.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9189.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9189.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9190.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9190.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9152.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9152.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1431.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1431.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0708.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0708.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1459.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1459.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0718.jpg
Ankara 10062012_0718.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1429.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1429.jpg
Rhyton
Rhyton
Rhyton
Rhyton
Boar
Boar
Ankara september 2011 9192.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9192.jpg
Bird holding  a vessel
Bird holding a vessel
Bird shaped vessel
Bird shaped vessel
Cow
Cow
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1436.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1436.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1433.jpg
Ankara Anatolian Civilizations Museum september 2014 1433.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9202.jpg
Ankara september 2011 9202.jpg
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