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Salzburg


History of Salzburg (from Yahoo)

Originally a Celtic settlement and later a Roman trading center called Juvavum, the town developed in the early 8th century. In about 696 St Rupert established a bishopric there, which was subsequently elevated to an archbishopric with authority over the dioceses of Bavaria. Over time the archbishops became increasingly involved in temporal matters and in the 13th century were granted the titles of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Wolf Dietrich von Raintenau (1587-1612) was one of the most influential archbishops and instigated the city's baroque reconstruction. However many prince-archbishops wielded their power with intolerance - in the late 15th century the Jews were expelled and in 1731-32 some 30,000 Protestants migrated to Prussia after a period of severe persecution.

Salzburg managed to stay out of the Thirty Years' War and remained neutral during the War of Austrian Succession a century later, but it was about this time that its power and prosperity began to diminish. Salzburg was secularized in 1802 and during the Napoleonic Wars was controlled by France and Bavaria. The 1814 annexation of Salzburg to Austria under the Habsburgs plunged the city into a recession. However the city's descent into poverty was a blessing in disguise as it ensured that the historic buildings in the city centre were repaired rather than replaced. In the late 19th century the new town was built on the right bank of the river.

The Republic of Austria was created on 12 November 1918, marking the end of the centuries-old Habsburg dynasty and the right of the monarchy to participate in government. There was a rise of fascism throughout the country after WWI and when German troops marched into Austria on 11 March 1938 they encountered little resistance. Austria was incorporated into the German Reich on 13 March 1938 and became part of Germany's war machine, the Austrian government becoming a puppet of the German Nazis while Austrians were conscripted into the German army. During WWII over 40 percent of Salzburg's buildings were destroyed or badly damaged. Austria was declared independent on 27 April 1945 and, after 10 years of allied occupation, the country declared its permanent neutrality on 15 May 1955. Austria joined the United Nations in the same year.

Historically the economic strength of the city was built on mining, both gold and salt, although salt (the so-called 'white gold') has been more important since Celtic times. Salz is German for salt and Salzburg literally means 'Castle/Fortress of Salt'. Another important factor in Salzburg's preeminence as a modern day tourist mecca was the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1756.

12 Nov
Route: Salzburg
Main Activities:
Sound of Music Tour-Schloss Hellbrunn, Schloss Leopoldskron, Wolfgansee, Mondsee
Festung Hohensalzburg
Altstadt-Residenplatz,St. Petersstiftskirche
Mozart Geburtshaus

13 Nov
Route: Salzburg -> Wien
Main Activities:
Mozarts Wonhaus
Mirabellgarten
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