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Mongolia

Mongolia



CapitalUlanbator
Official LanguageMongolian
Independence29 December 1911
Area1,564,115.75 km²
Population2,951,786
CurrencyTögrög (MNT)
IDD Code+976

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Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It borders Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulaanbaatar or Ulan Bator, the capital and largest city is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.

The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Gökturks and others. In 1206 Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan Dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of constant internal conflict and occasional raids on the Chinese borderlands. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Mongolia came under the influence of Tibetan Buddhism. At the end of the 17th century, all of Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Qing Dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, but had to struggle until 1921 to firmly establish de facto independence from the Republic of China, and until 1945 to gain international recognition.

The country came under strong Russian influence and proclaiming in 1924 the communist Mongolian People's Republic, it became Soviet Union's satellite state. It was only after the breakdown of communist regimes in Europe in late 1989, when Mongolia saw its own Democratic Revolution in early 1990; it led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.

Mongolia is the 19th largest and the most sparsely populated independent country in the world, with a population of around 3.2 million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by steppes, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Approximately 30% of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic. The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism, and the majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. About 20% of the population live on less than US$1.25 per day. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.

Bogd Khan Uul
Bogd Khan Uul
Elsen Tasarkhai
Elsen Tasarkhai
Erdenesant
Erdenesant
Gorkhi Terelj National Park
Gorkhi Terelj National Park
Kharkhorin
Kharkhorin
Khustain Nuruu National Park
Khustain Nuruu National Park
Tuv Aimag
Tuv Aimag
Ulaanbaatar
Ulaanbaatar