The Napoleonic War of 1812 mural in the Moscow Metro commemorates what Russians call the Patriotic War. Napoleon attacked Russia with more than 600,000 troops seeking to overthrow the Czar, and plunder Russia's treasury and natural resources. Napoleon invaded after Czar Alexander threateningly massed troops along the Polish border and had refused to cooperate with Napoleon's policy toward Great Britain.
But, rather than surrender, the Muscovites burned the city in September 1812, leaving nothing to plunder. Napoleon abandoned the City to return to France on October 19 with his remaining 130,000 troops just as one of Winter's deepest freezes was about to set in. The temperature on October 18 had fallen to freezing, and it would fall steadily to more than 33 degrees below 0 Celsius before the tragic retreat ended in December 1812.
After the The Battle of Maloyaroslavets, which took place just south of Moscow on October 24, 1812, Napoleon's Grand Armee had only one avenue of retreat, back through the barren path that had already been plundered by both armies during the initial invasion. Only 6,000 men out of the original French army and mercenaries survived the entire homeward trek beyond Vilnius, as they were constantly attacked by emboldened Russian troops and Cossacks under the direction of Kutuzov. The rest of the Grand Armee froze to death, starved, died of typhus, dysentery, gangrene or battle wounds.
The central figure in the mural is most likely the one-eyed Russian Field Marshal Kutuzov (thanks to Alex Tratov for this insight).